Biología Básica
Vida en el Ambiente Marino


MARESociety
(Curso otorgado en Universidad Interamericana de PR como
parte del currículo de Ciencias Marinas del Barco Escuela)
Profesor: Pedro M. González
Figuras obtenidas de Castro P. & M.E. Huber. 2005


Procarióticos y Eucarióticos

Procarióticos
Células estructuralmente simple
  • Sin núcleo – hilera de DNA
  • Ribosomas esparcidos por el citoplasma

Eucarióticos
Células estructuralmente complejas
  • Núcleo; Retículo endoplasmico; Mitocondria; cloroplasto, otro organelos.

Niveles de Organización Corporal 

  • Unicelulares y Multicelulares
  • Célula – unidad autosuficiente
  • Tejido – grupo de células especializadas
  • Órgano – tejidos organizados con funciones especializadas
  • Sistema de órganos – digestivo, nervioso, circulatorio, reproductivo, etc.

Niveles de Organización Entre Individuos

  • Individuo
  • Población – grupo de individuos de la misma especie viviendo en un lugar particular
  • Comunidad – poblaciones de diferentes especies en un mismo lugar
                * Interacción – predación; competencia; dependencia
  • Ecosistema una comunidad o varia comunidades con su ambiente físico
  • Hábitat – el ambiente natural donde viven los organismos
            *Plancton – superficie de agua
            *Bentos – en el fondo del agua
            *Necton – columna de agua
            *Epifiticos – pegados a estructuras o a otro organismos

Salinidad

  • Concentración de iones en el agua de mar

Difusión y Osmosis

  • Difusión – movimiento al azar de partículas de áreas de alta concentración a áreas de baja concentración
  • Osmosis – difusión de agua a través de una membrana selectivamente permeable de áreas de alta concentración a áreas de baja concentración
  • Transporte activo – movimiento de materiales de área de baja concentración a áreas de alta concentración
                  *Proteína bombea materiales a través de membrana celular

Regulación de Sales y Balance de Agua

  • Osmoconformes – organismos donde la concentración interna cambia a la par con la del agua que los rodea.
                 *Deben de mantenerse en áreas donde la salinidad sea la misma que la de ellos
  • Osmoreguladores – organismos que controlan la concentración interna de solutos para que se ajuste a la del agua que los rodea 
  • Peces tiene fluidos corporales mas diluidos que el agua
  • Pierden agua por osmosis
  • Reemplazan esa agua perdida
              *Bebiendo
              *Absorben pocas sales cuando beben
              *Sales pasan a través estomago
                        *Excretan excesos de sal por agallas
              *Producen poco orín

Osmosis
Fig. 4.14, pp. 76

Picture

Temperatura

  • Reacciones metabólicas y temperatura
                   *Calor = reacciones mas rápidas
                   *Frió = reacciones mas lentas
  • Ectodermos – el calor se pierde rápidamente al ambiente y tiene poca influencia en su temperatura corporal (“sangre fria”)
  • Poikilotermos – su temperatura cambia con la del ambiente
  • Todos los ectodermos son poikilotermos
  • Endodermos – el calor producido por su metabolismo incrementa su temperatura corporal
  • Homeotermos – mantienen su temperatura corporal constante  (“sangre caliente”)
                    *Metabolizan grasas
                    *Aislamiento – pelaje, plumas, grasa
                    *Mamíferos y aves

Razón de Superficie a Volumen

  • Razón de Superficie a Volumen - Cantidad de área superficial relativa al volumen total de organismo
  • Determinante en perdida o ganancia de temperatura y facilidad de flujo de materiales

Reproducción

  • Asexual
                 *Fisión -  anémonas
                 *Brotes o yemas  - esponjas
  • Sexual
                 *Fertilización
                 *Zigoto
                 *Embrio
                 *Estado larval diferente  ha adulto
  •  Gónadas – tejido germinativo
                 *Ovarios y testes
  • Estrategias reproductivas
  • Desove esparcido

Diversidad

  • Diversidad – el numero de especies diferentes en un area dada

Selección Natural y Adaptación

  • Evolución – alteración gradual del componente genético de una especie
                  *Ocurre por que los individuos tienen diferencias genéticas en su habilidad de encontrar                           .......    .....    alimento, evitar depredadores, reproducirse y en su metabolismo y otros atributo
  • Selección natural – los individuos mejor adaptado y mas exitosos en su ambiente producen una cantidad mayor de decendientes que lo que nos están bien adaptados 

Clasificación

Nomenclatura Binomial
  • Especie – población de organismos con características similares y que pueden aparearse entre ellos
  • Genero – grupo de especies comunes
                 *Primera letra En mayúscula
                 *Especie y genero se subrayan o se escriben en letra tipo latina
  • Isolacion reproductiva – cuando dos poblaciones no pueden reproducirse 
  • Reinos
             *Plantae - plantas
             *Animalia - animales
             *Fungi - hongos
             *Protista 
             *Monera – procariotes
                       *Bacteria
                       *Archaea

Taxonomia
Tabla 4.2, pp. 84

Picture

Filogenia

  • Filogenia – historia evolutiva común. Grupos diferente evolucionaron de ancestros comunes
                    *Fósiles
                    *Estructura corporal
                    *Reproducción
                    *Desarrollo embrionico y larval
                    *Comportamiento
Picture

Bibliografía

  • Castro P. & M.E. Huber. 2005. Marine Biology. McGraw Hill, 452pp.
  • Sumich J.L. and G. Dudley 2005. Laboratory and Field Investigations in Marine Life. Jones and Barlett, Sudburry , Mass
 


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